King's College London
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LIDDELL HART, Capt Sir Basil Henry (1895-1970)

Papers on the inter-war years, 1919-1939

References on this page: LIDDELL HART: 15/3/378-399

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/378-399 Papers dated 1925-1971 on Spanish domestic and foreign policy, 1923-1939, including Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/378


Newspaper cuttings relating to Spanish politics, economy and society during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, 1923-1931, and the Second Spanish Republic under the leadership of Manuel Azaña, 1931-1936. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/379

1936 Jul-1937 Jan

Newspaper cuttings relating to the Spanish Civil War, particularly military uprising led by Gen Don Francisco Franco (Bahamonde) in Spanish Morocco and spread to mainland Spain, Jul 1936; battle between Republican government and Nationalist forces in Madrid, Aug-Nov 1936, including removal of government to Valencia; military aid from the Soviet Union to the Republicans and from Italy and Germany to the Nationalists; establishment of a Non-Intervention Committee by Britain and France; mass summary executions and aerial bombing of villages, towns and cities by both sides; fighting at Badajoz, Irun and Malaga; restrictions on foreign press. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/380


Photographs of the Spanish Civil War sent to LIDDELL HART by author Cecil Scott Forester, May 1937, mainly of Nationalist forces, including captured tanks and armoured cars, Gen Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde, Franco's Moorish bodyguard, Moorish troops, troops at military base in the Guadarrama Mountains north of Madrid, Franco's entry into Burgos. 36 black and white photographs

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/381


Papers relating to the Spanish Civil War and Gen Francisco Franco's government, comprising extracts from newspapers, journals and The War in Spain by Freda White (Longmans, London, 1937); LIDDELL HART's typescript notes on tank, air force and artillery tactics, Apr 1937; memoranda, 1938 and 1941, sent to LIDDELL HART by Pablo de Azcárate y Florez, former Spanish Ambassador in London, on military fortifications in Spain and Morocco, Republican war aims, relations between Spanish Communist Party and the Republic, German-Italian military and economic involvement in Spain, political dissent under Franco's regime and reasons for Spanish non-involvement in World War Two; notes from interview with Nationalist soldier on quality and use of weapons, author unknown, Apr 1938. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/382

1937 Feb-Mar

Newspaper cuttings relating to the Spanish Civil War, particularly continued fighting in Madrid, including large-scale Italian and German military assistance to Nationalists; occupation of Malaga by Nationalists; British and French attempts to ban involvement of volunteer forces organised by Italy, Germany and USSR. Also magazine Spain Illustrated, A Year's Defence of Democracy (Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1937). 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/383

1937 Apr-May

Newspaper cuttings and journal articles relating to the Spanish Civil War, particularly fighting in Basque region of northern Spain including Nationalist advance on Bilbao, naval blockade of ports and destruction of Guernica aided by German bomber planes; League of Nations condemnation of Italian military intervention in Spain; oppression of left-wing opposition in Nationalist held areas of Spain. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/384

1937 Jun

Newspaper cuttings relating to the Spanish Civil War, particularly attack on Almería by German warships as reprisal for Republican bombing of battleship DEUTSCHLAND anchored at Ibiza; death of leading Nationalist Gen Emilio Mola in airline crash on Basque front; capture of Bilbao by Nationalist and Italian forces led by Gen Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde; Republican torpedo attacks on German cruiser LEIPZIG in Mediterranean Sea; German and Italian withdrawal from International Naval Control scheme and open support for Franco. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/385

1937 Jul-Aug

Newspaper cuttings relating to the Spanish Civil War, particularly Benito Mussolini's refusal to withdraw Italian volunteers from Spain; deadlock at Non-Intervention Committee in London, over British proposals for naval patrols in the Mediterranean Sea and international non-involvement; capture of Santander by Nationalist forces; escalation of fighting west of Madrid, including large-scale Republican land and air offensive and Nationalist counter-attack. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/386

1937 Sep-Dec

Newspaper cuttings relating to the Spanish Civil War, particularly signing of Nyon Agreement in Switzerland, for British, French and Italian naval patrols in Mediterranean Sea; French and British proposals at the Non-Intervention Committee for withdrawal of foreign combatants; removal of Republican government from Valencia to Barcelona; Republican attack on Teruel; consolidation of Nationalist control in northern and western Spain by end 1937, including treatment of prisoners. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/387


Papers relating to military operations, strategy and tactics in the Spanish Civil War, comprising newspaper cuttings and journal articles, including 'The tank in Spain' by Maj Gen John Frederick Charles Fuller in Army Ordnance, Jul-Aug 1938; leaflets issued by International Peace Campaign, Paris, and the Committee of British Ship Owners Trading to Spain, London, 1938; journal Spain 18 Jul 1936-18 Jul 1938, No 42 (Spanish Press Services Ltd, 18 Jul 1938) including articles on bombardment of Barcelona and Soviet military aid to Republicans. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/388


Papers relating to the Spanish Civil War, comprising text of a speech by V Adm Cecil Vivian Usborne entitled 'The influence of sea power on the Spanish Civil War' 1937, and typescript draft survey of military and naval operations in the Mediterranean during 1938, compiled by the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, Jun 1939. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/389


Publications relating to the Spanish Civil War, comprising Why Spain Fights On by Louis Fischer (Union of Democratic Control, London, probably 1937-1938); The Military Situation in Spain After Teruel by Air Cdre Lionel Evelyn Oswald Charlton and How Mussolini Provoked the Spanish Civil War, Documentary Evidence (United Editorial Ltd, London, probably 1938); Air-Raid Over Barcelona, leaflet containing poem by Stanley Richardson, probably 1938; The Communist Plot in Spain, leaflet containing text of letter to The Times, 5 May 1938, from Pablo de Azcárate y Florez, Spanish Ambassador in London; The Spanish War by Ernest Hemingway, monthly monograph No 16 (Fact, London, Jul 1938). 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/390


Papers relating to the Spanish Civil War and government under Gen Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde, mainly comprising promotional leaflet for The Friends of National Spain [1937]; bulletins of the Spanish Press Agency in London, 6-8 Feb 1938, including air raids on Barcelona; translation of confidential report, 11 Apr 1938, by Manuel Estrade, Director General of Military Intelligence, Spanish Ministry of National Defence, to Gen Rojo, detailing extent of Italian and German military involvement; memoranda on Franco's political aims in Portugal and southern France and position of Spain towards German-Italian policy in the Mediterranean, sent to LIDDELL HART by Dr Batista i Roca, Delegate of the Catalan Government in London, 1939-1940. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/391

1938 Jan-Mar

Newspaper cuttings relating to the Spanish Civil War, particularly Nationalist recapture of Teruel; international condemnation of air bombing of civilians notably by Nationalists in Barcelona; reinforcement of British, French and Italian naval patrols in the Mediterranean Sea, notably around Balearic Isles; Nationalist offensive in Aragon with alleged German military assistance; Nationalist attack on Lerida and Fraga, Catalonia, and advance towards Barcelona. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/392

1938 Jan-1939 Mar

The War in Spain, A Weekly Summary Nos 1-25, 27 and 61 (United Editorial Ltd, London, Jan 1938-Mar 1939) including Nationalist and Italian naval activity in the Mediterranean Sea; air bombardment of towns and situation of refugees; policies and authority of Republican government; Italian and German military and political support to Nationalists and Gen Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde; British non-intervention policy and attitude toward Italian and German involvement. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/393

1938 Feb-Jun

Spanish News Nos 3-20 (Spanish Press Agency, London, 1 Feb-22 Jun 1938) covering military, political, diplomatic, economic, social and cultural aspects of the Spanish Civil War, notably naval activity in the Mediterranean Sea; Italian and German military involvement; battle on the Teruel and Aragon fronts; speeches of Republican premier Dr Juan Negrin; bombing of civilians. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/394

1938 Apr-Jun

Newspaper cuttings relating to the Spanish Civil War, particularly fall of Catalonian capital Lerida to Nationalists; battle on Mediterranean coast around Tortosa; Nationalist advance toward the Pyrenees mountains; British proposals for neutral commission to investigate and prevent further aerial bombing of civilians following Nationalist raids on Granollers, Barcelona, Alicante and Valencia; capture of Castellon by Nationalists; Nationalist blockade of Spanish Mediterranean coast and attacks on British ships; discussions by Britain, France, Germany and Italy at the Non-Intervention Committee on financing withdrawal of foreign combatants in Spain. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/395

1938 Jul-Dec

Newspaper cuttings relating to the Spanish Civil War, particularly acceptance by all Non-Intervention Committee members of British plans for withdrawal of foreign combatants; departure of ten thousand Italian troops from Spain; Nationalist offensive towards Valencia including battle around Sagunto; battle on west side of Ebro River, including high casualties; British condemnation of continued Nationalist air raids on Barcelona; new Nationalist offensive against Catalonia launched in Dec. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/396

1939 Jan-Feb

Comment on Spanish Affairs, Vol 3 Nos 25-26 and Vol 4 No 1-4 (Committee for the Defence of Spain, London, 14 Jan-18 Feb 1939) including relations between Nationalists and Catholic Church; Nationalist bombing of British ships in the Mediterranean Sea; British and French non-intervention policy; Italian and German military involvement and political objectives; Nationalist capture of Catalonia. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/397

1939 Jan-Aug

Newspaper cuttings and journal articles relating to the Spanish Civil War particularly Nationalist offensive in Catalonia, including capture of Cervera, Tarragona and Barcelona; mass exodus of Spanish refugees to French Pyrénnian frontier; Anglo-French recognition of Gen Don Franciso Franco Bahamonde's government; surrender of Madrid in Mar; establishment of new regime under Franco including treatment of prisoners; withdrawal of last foreign troops in Spain; German and Italian support for new regime and attempts to include Spain in the Axis alliance. 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/398


Publications relating to the Spanish Civil War, comprising booklet Spain, Britain and the Rome-Berlin Axis, notes for speakers issued by the Parliamentary Committee for Spain (1939); journal Sonderheft Die Wehrmacht [1939] including articles on German military involvement notably operations of Condor Legion formed by volunteers from German Air Force; Report, National Joint Committee for Spanish Relief and Basque Children's Trust Ltd (London, 1941). 1 file

LIDDELL HART: 15/3/399


Newspaper cuttings, mainly anniversary articles and extracts and reviews of histories and biographies, relating to the Spanish Civil War and the government of Gen Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde, including series of four articles in Reynolds News, Jul 1961, by Walter Greenhalgh describing his experiences fighting in Spain with the International Brigade volunteer force. 1 file


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