King's College London
Archive Catalogues

BRINK OF APOCALYPSE, Television Documentary Archive

BRINK OF APOCALYPSE 3/1-9: Warsaw Pact Intelligence

Please note: We require 7 days notice to retrieve this collection as part, or all of it, is held off-campus.


Brink of Apocalypse 3/1

[2007]

Interview with Victor Cherkashin, Deputy Head of the KGB Station in Washington

Typescript transcript of interview with Victor Cherkashin, Deputy Head of the KGB Station in Washington. Subjects include his position in 1983; Operation RYAN; the long standing possibility of nuclear attack involving the Americans and the USSR, a period of high alert; Pershing II missiles; the USSR-Afghanistan war 1979-1988; “Evil Empire” speech made by Ronald Reagan in 1981, denouncing the USSR; KGB monitoring of the White House as part of Operation RYAN; Yuri Andropov and his personal input in Operation RYAN; STAR Wars/Strategic Defence Initiative(SDI) in 1981; USSR reaction to STAR Wars; unreliability of intelligence received by the KGB in 1983; shooting down of Korean Airlines flight KAL 007, 1 Sep 1983, and the reaction from the USSR and United States; invasion of Grenada by the United States in 1983; Able Archer; relations between Europe and the United States. Original interview conducted in Russian, transcript in English. 43pp.

1 file


Brink of Apocalypse 3/2

[2007]

Interview with Gen Igor Kondriatev, USSR Military Intelligence

Typescript transcript of interview with Gen Igor Kondriatev, USSR Military Intelligence. Subjects include Stanislav Petrov and the false detection of missiles in September 1983; expectations of a nuclear attack from NATO and NATO’s capabilities of nuclear attack; political and military level tensions between NATO and the USSR; President Ronald Reagan administration and his “Evil Empire” speech, 1981; tension between the heads of state; Operation RYAN military intelligence on NATO; NATO exercises and the exhaustion they would cause to military staff; GDR military intelligence and Markus Wolf; Able Archer as a routine strategic exercise; USSR leadership concerns about Able Archer; Able Archer as a provocative exercise. Original interview conducted in Russian, transcript in English. 29pp.

1 file


Brink of Apocalypse 3/3

[2007]

Interview with Oleg Gordievsky, KGB Colonel, London and Moscow, Double Agent working for British Intelligence

Typescript transcript of interview with Oleg Gordievsky, KGB Colonel, London and Moscow and Double Agent working for British Intelligence. Subjects include Operation RYAN, with reference to the KGB; cynicism by junior officers of Operation RYAN; why Operation RYAN began in 1981; concerns about Ronald Reagan and American determination from USSR intelligence; increased suspicion amongst all the Warsaw Pact intelligence; USSR reaction to Reagan’s ideological speeches including his “Evil Empire” speech ;the shooting down of Korean Airlines flight KAL 007, 1 Sep 1983 and the reaction to the shooting down; Communication between USSR and United States regarding KAL 007-1 Sep 1983; Gordievsky’s role as a double agent and information passed to the British; his meetings with John Scarlet, MI6 officer; Yuri Andropov’s attitudes to communism and the spirit of USSR aggression disappearing throughout the 1980s, how the illness of Konstantin Chernenko, General Secretary 1984-1985, changed the atmosphere of the USSR; Moscow reaction to the invasion of Grenada, Oct-Dec 1983, by the United States; tension after Able Archer exercise; lack of nuclear strikes between the USA and USSR during the Cold War; comparison between Able Archer and Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962; the belief of the USSR that Reagan wanted a nuclear war; Gordievsky’s escape from the USSR in 1985. 56pp.

1 file


Brink of Apocalypse 3/4

[2007]

Interview with Oleg Kalugin, KGB General, Leningrad

Typescript transcript of interview with Oleg Kalugin, KGB General, Leningrad. Subjects include his role as second in command at the KGB in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg); working close to the Finland border; his role within the United States as an intelligence officer in the KGB, then his role as chief of Foreign counter intelligence; reforms within the KGB from 1950s-1980s ;relationship with Yuri Andropov; Kalugin’s views on Dmitriy Ustinov, and Andrei Gromyko; the rivalry between Leonid Brezhnev and his Generals with Andropov; Andropov’s ‘tough’ persona; Andropov’s survival within the USSR power infrastructure due to his perceived intellectuality; Brezhnev’s clique’s promotion of Andropov only to remove him for the KGB; Andropov’s paranoia; emergence of Operation RYAN, Ronald Reagan and his “Evil Empire” speech 1981; spotting signs of Operation RYAN, following western press reports during the early 1980s; USSR relationship with Presidents Jimmy Carter and Richard Nixon during Detente; USSR’s relationship with Henry Kissinger; the monitoring of the White House and Western Europe by KGB intelligence officers, the cynicism felt by officers about Operation RYAN; head of KGB, Vladimir Kryuchkov, his anti-western views, his relationship with Mikhail Gorbachev and Kryuchkov’s role in the failed 1991 USSR coup d'état attempt; Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech, May 1945; The USSR economy; shooting down of Korean Airlines Flight KAL 007, 1 Sep 1983; the presence of Operation RYAN; USSR ageing leadership. 61pp

1 file


Brink of Apocalypse 3/5

[2007]

Interview with Vladimir Kryuchkov, Head of KGB

Typescript transcript of interview with Vladimir Kryuchkov, Head of KGB. Subjects include US & USSR policy on conflicts; Operation RYAN; KGB sharing information with GRU; Reagan’s missile launch joke; ;KGB/GRU Situations Room; registered signs of nuclear presence and monitored levels of danger; Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) and Star Wars; Americans bluffing about a real war; the relationship between Kryuchkov and Andropov in the final months of Andropov’s life; Americans violating USSR airspace, the shooting down of Korean Airlines flight KAL 007 and claims that Korean Airlines flight KAL 007 was a military Boeing 747 and not a civilian plane; Ronald Reagan’s “Evil Empire” speech, 1981; telegrams about Kryuchkov’s concerns; American plans of aggression from sea and air; the tense period between 8-9 November 1983; Andropov and Politburo awareness of tensions; USSR’s lack of plans for conflict after World War Two and USSR retaliation had it been attacked. Original interview conducted in Russian, transcript in English 30pp

1 file


Brink of Apocalypse 3/6

[2007]

Interview with Boris Vladimirovich Klyuyukov, Deputy Head of personal security of Yuri Andropov

Typescript transcript of interview with Boris Vladimirovich Klyuyukov Deputy Head of personal security of Yuri Andropov. Subjects include his role working for Yuri Andropov when he was Chairman of the KGB and General Secretary; Andropov’s illness and his dialysis every other day requiring him to be based at the hospital in Kosava instead of the Kremlin; Andropov’s efficiency as General Secretary whilst in hospital; hospital visits from Dmitry Ustinov, Andrei Gromyko, Mikhail Gorbachev & Konstantin Chernenko; Andropov’s calm and confidence in 1983; Andropov reaction to the shooting down of Korean Airlines flight KAL-007; Klyuyukov’s recollections of Able Archer; Yuri Andropov as a personality; the possibility of Andropov giving an order to start a nuclear war; relationship between Andropov and Ustinov; hotline within the hospital; Original interview conducted in Russian, transcript in English; 26pp

1 file


Brink of Apocalypse 3/7

[2007]

Interview with Vitali Tsygichko, working in one of the Research Institutes of USSR Defence Ministry

Typescript transcript of interview with Vitali Tsygichko, working in one of the Research Institutes of USSR Defence Ministry. Subjects include his role as head of mathematical modelling in Research Institute of USSR Defence Ministry, forecasting the military potential of Western countries; the shooting down of Korean Airlines flight KAL 007; the concept of war exercises leading to conflict; the arrival of Pershing II missiles; USSR superiority in conventional weapons; American institute calculations of the effect of a nuclear attack on Chicago; perception of Able Archer as provocative exercise; Reagan administration benefiting from the tension; consequences of a nuclear strike; Ministry of Defence against publishing of Tsygichko’s results; Yuri Andropov’s knowledge of results; Dmitry Ustinov’s shaping of military policy; disagreements between Nikolai Orgachov and Ustinov over mathematical modelling; the Star Wars programme/Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI); calculations report in regards to Able Archer and as an annual exercise. Original interview conducted in Russian, transcript in English; 32pp

1 file


Brink of Apocalypse 3/8

[2007]

Interview with Rainer Rupp-NATO Senior Staff & Agent for German Democratic Republic Intelligence known as ‘Topaz’

Typescript transcript of interview with Rainer Rupp NATO Senior Staff & Agent for German Democratic Republic Intelligence known as ‘Topaz’ .Subjects include his role within NATO’s political affairs division economics directorate in 1983; the role of the economics directorate; the information he was privy to in that; his roles in the North Atlantic Council and Defence Planning Council; Political Affairs division’s interest in Strategic Defence Initiative(SDI); the Current Operation Group (COG), which Rupp chaired, which looked at developments within NATO and the Current Intelligence Group (CIG), which grouped all intelligence received in the east into one central group; HVA (General Reconnaissance Administration) spy role within NATO; his membership before joining NATO ;the political situation within Germany in 1968 that lead him to become a spy; the National Democratic Party of Germany and the role of “old Nazis” in power; his recruitment into the HVA; his training prior to joining NATO; achieving his role at NATO, as an outsider; warnings to look out for surprise attacks plans by his superiors; meeting with his superiors in neutral; physiological operations within NATO against the USSR; USA and NATO searching for holes and deficiencies in the USSR system, focused on the Far East because of weaknesses; shooting down of Korean Airlines flight KAL 007, in the context of Far East division weaknesses; Russians on high alert; the possibility of NATO launching a premeditated strike against USSR; United States as a threat to USSR security; NATO’s reaction to the SS20 missiles; USSR retaliation plans; lack of information about Able Archer within NATO; the unfeasibility of Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI); Europe’s scaled back nuclear arms program; relationship between the NATO member states and United States; taking photographs within NATO; providing documents and photographs to the HVA; passing over information regarding the MC161, a military committee document stating what NATO knew about the USSR; description of the biannual Wintex exercises; his knowledge of the Able Archer 1983 exercise; his use of coded machines during 1983, given to him as a response to Able Archer; transmitting messages during Able Archer; His capture and conviction in 1993; the impact his career had on the Cold War; 73pp

1 file


Brink of Apocalypse 3/9

[2007]

Interview with Werner Grossman, First Deputy to General Markus Wolf, German Democratic Republic (GDR) Intelligence

Typescript transcript of interview with Werner Grossman, First Deputy to General Markus Wolf. Subjects include his role in the events of autumn 1983; the period of high tension between East and West; German Democratic Republic agents in the West; Operation RYAN, an operation of the USSR Intelligence Services initiated to prevent an atomic first strike against the Warsaw-Pact; USSRs fears of a nuclear attack; General Vladimir Kryuchkov , Head of the Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti/Committee for State Security (KGB); HVA as a source for the KGB; the knowledge of US Missiles in Federal Republic of Germany; the importance of Rainer Rupp, Nato Spy known as “Topaz”; Able Archer and NATO. 7pp

1 file

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